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Timur’un Prensipleri - Timurlenk PDF kitap ücretsiz indir

Timur’un Prensipleri - Timurlenk PDF kitap ücretsiz indir

Timur’un Prensipleri - Timurlenk PDF kitap indir veya çevrimiçi dinle

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Timur’un Prensipleri - Timurlenk “Ülkeler kılıçla alınır, ancak adaletle korunur. ” … Timur hasta düşmüştü. Tabibi Fazlulah, Timur’a hiç saklamaksızın “Ümit yok. ” dedi. Timur ölümünün yaklaştığını görünce vasiyetini yazdırdı. Sonra yatağının etrafında ayakta olan oğularına dönerek: “Çocuklarım, miletin huzurunu temin için benim sizlere bıraktığım vasiyeti ve düsturları unutmayınız. (ki bu vasiyetler ve düsturlar Timur’un nizamlarıdır) Halkın dertlerine derman bulunuz. Zayıfları koruyunuz. Bilhasa fakirleri zenginlerin zulmünden koruyunuz. Her işinizde rehberiniz adalet ve iyilik olsun. Eğer benim gibi uzun müdet saltanat sürmek isterseniz kılıcı ihtiyat ve liyakatle kulanınız. Aranıza anlaşmazlık tohumu girmemesine çok dikat ediniz. Çünkü yakınlarınız, arkadaşlarınız ve düşmanlarınız bundan istifade için aranıza anlaşmazlık sebepleri saçmaya çalışacaktır. Vasiyetimdeki idare usulü esaslarına sadık kalırsanız taç daima sizin başınızda kalır. Ölüm döşeğinde olan babanızın sözlerini daima hatırlayınız…” diyerek öldü. Ve bütün kumandanlar, saray adamları, ağlayarak yemin etiler. Timur, 19 Mart 1405 günü vefat eti. Male sözü “Lâilâhe ilalah” oldu. Cenazesini mumyalayarak Semerkant’a götürdüler. Sağlığında çok sevdiği torunu Muhamed Sultan için yaptırdığı türbeye, torununun yanına gömüldü.

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Timur’un Prensipleri - Timurlenk

scadilla

Despite the historical setting, THE ELEPHANT'S JOURNEY, by Jose Saramago is not a historical novel. The viewpoint is self-referential and observant, iconoclastic but never with rancor. The author comments about literal word meanings: “It will be as if we were adding subtitles in our own language to a film, a concept unknown in the sixteenth century, to compensate for our ignorance or imperfect knowledge of the language spoken by the actors. We will, therefore, have two parallel discourses that will never meet, this one, which we will be able to follow without difficulty, and another, which, from this moment on, will remain silent.” His observation applies equally well to his narrative style -- intentionally jumping between historical context and universal values. The historical facts are these. King Joao III of Portugal is married to Dona Caterina (Catherine of Hapbsburg), sister of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Charles V's daughter, Maria of Spain, has married Maximillian II, the nephew of Charles V. King Joao III and Catarina, casting about for a belated but impressive wedding present for Maximillian and his bride, hit upon their elephant, itself a gift to them from their colony in Goa, India. Maximillian II will soon be departing from his position as regent of Spain to renewed residence in Austria. Accordingly, the elephant Solomon and his mahout Subhro are provided with a convoy of cavalry, oxen, mules and carts of hay (to feed the elephant), and dispatched to Valladolid to be met by Archduke Maximillian's convoy as it makes its way across the Alps to Vienna. From this event Saramago weaves a delightful story. Subhro is able to provide some helpful logistical suggestions for increasing the progress of the procession -- under normal circumstances, what temerity! However, the mahout is in a unique position. His common sense commands recognition – after all, the captain of the convoy can't fire him. Who would take care of Solomon? Along the way, an incident with a local priest endows the elephant with the reputation for knowing the difference between regular water and holy water (not the only time that Saramago will aim his wit at religion). One would do well to remember Saramago's observation: “It isn't true that heaven and the heavens are indifferent to our preoccupations and desires. They're constantly sending us signs and warnings, and the only reason we don't add good advice to that list is that experience, heaven's and ours, has shown that memory, which isn't anyone's strong point, is best not overburdened with too much detail.” At Figueira de Castelo Rodrigo on the Portuguese-Spanish border, there is a ridiculous confrontation with the Austrian escort over who should accompany the elephant to Valladolid. Of the townspeople's retreat to safety, Saramago explains: “...as war is just a spectacle, that's fine, the trouble starts when they want to involve us as players...” Fortunately, since the Austrian contingent is not authorized to do any fighting, a sensible compromise is quickly reached. Both contingents will make the trip to Valladolid. The introduction of Maximillian II and his entourage begin a new chapter in the story. To start, Maximillian exerts his aristocratic perogative and renames the elephant Suleiman – and the mahout Subhro as Fritz! Maximillian's presence adds a new layer of protocol for Saramago to target. As the journey proceeds, vanity, credulity, self-importance, guile, and sentimentality are displayed like a peacock's fan, burnished in the rays of self-deception. Saramago is a master at managing the reader's investment in the story. The elephant begins as an opaque vessel for relaying Saramago's own observations on humanity. However, little by little, he develops Solomon into an independent character. Solomon's farewell to the porters is both believable and touching. Does the elephant sense the change in his daily routine or something deeper? Saramago lets the reader judge for himself. The scene is reinforced by later vignettes of behavior. Of the alps, Saramago, again avoids putting concrete thoughts into the mind of the elephant. He merely remarks, laconically, “We do not know what he [Solomon] is thinking, but, in the midst of these alps, we can be sure of one thing, he is not a happy elephant.” By journey's end, we have come to admire the elephant's quiet patience and dignity, and to care about both him and his mahout Subhro. We are filled with regret at this singular journey's inevitable end.

2020-08-09 17:44

nzegwhuaf71b

Pg 142. 2/25/11. So far this book is good. I predict that the main characters dog and mark james are both very suspicious and could be up to something.

2020-01-31 21:54

witenconsulting

Bu kitabı indiremedim. Çok doğru ve yirmili yaşların başında öfkeli.

2020-01-14 03:16

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